They face no electoral districts subject to potential partisan map-drawing mischief. Thus gerrymandering plays zero role in U.
Introduction Bureaucracy is an organizational model rationally designed to perform complex tasks efficiently. Bureaucratic organizations are typically large organizations, and they are characterized by formalized rules and regulations, systematic record-keeping and archiving of past decisions, formalized planning for the future, hierarchies of status, defined career paths within the organization and across organizationsa concern for organizational identity, and other features.
The army and most churches also belong to this category. The fact that bureaucracies are governed by rules make them something like staffed with human robots, where rules serve as a program governing the robot behavior.
And as in sci-fi such robots very soon start to demonstrate behavior that was not designed by the programmers. For example, scholars and specialists often lament that once the bureaucracy commits itself to a course of action, it rarely adjusts its path.
Bureaucracies prize continuity over innovation and cling to the prevailing orthodoxy even if that means moving strait till everybody start to fall from the cliff. With the notable exception of the top layer of hierarchy.
While each bureaucracy is created with particular mandate, like Frankenstein it very soon it escape the control of its creators and start living the life of its own, pursuing goals that might nothing to do, or worse completely opposite to those to achieve which it was created.
At some point a new phenomenon called organizational culture emerge. The elements fit together as a self-reinforcing system and are resistant to any attempt to change it.
Hierarchy, with its attendant multiple layers of goals, roles, accountabilities, values and communication channels became entrenched. Principal agent problem and the process of corruption of bureaucracy Any bureaucracy is a political coalition that is designed to protect and enrich its members see Bureaucracy as a Political Coalition.
And that goal explicitly conflict with the goal of efficient and dispassionate service that they theoretically should provide. That means that there is inherent contradiction within any large bureaucratic organization.
This problem recently in get some attention in respect to financial sector: In political science and economics, the principal-agent problem or agency dilemma treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information when a principal hires an agent, such as the problem that the two may not have the same interests, while the principal is, presumably, hiring the agent to pursue the interests of the former.
Here is how Wikipedia defines this relationship The principal—agent problem or agency dilemma occurs when one person or entity the "agent" is able to make decisions that impact, or on behalf of, another person or entity: The dilemma exists because sometimes the agent is motivated to act in his own best interests rather than those of the principal.
The agent-principal relationships is a useful analytic tool in political science and economicsbut may also apply to other areas.
Common examples of this relationship include corporate management agent and shareholders principalor politicians agent and voters principal. In fact the problem potentially arises in almost any context where one party is being paid by another to do something, whether in formal employment or a negotiated deal such as paying for household jobs or car repairs.
The problem arises where the two parties have different interests and asymmetric information the agent having more informationsuch that the principal cannot directly ensure that the agent is always acting in its the principal's best interests,  particularly when activities that are useful to the principal are costly to the agent, and where elements of what the agent does are costly for the principal to observe.
Moral hazard and conflict of interest may arise.
Indeed, the principal may be sufficiently concerned at the possibility of being exploited by the agent that he chooses not to enter into a transaction at all, when that deal would have actually been in both parties' best interests: The deviation from the principal's interest by the agent is called " agency costs ".
Perverse incentives is more politically correct work meaning essentially the same. Attempts to constrain financial looting using laws and regulation, or at the individual level, by a sufficiently powerful moral conscience proved inefficient.
Criminal prosecution is difficult as top officers amass considerable wealth and can afford the best defense money can buy. At the same time Stalinism-style purges, while definitely effective contradict norms of the modern societies. Changing situation via regulation is difficult as financial oligarchy controls lawmakers and, as Obama election had shown, also might well controls the nomination of presidential candidates from both parties.
There are three laws that govern this process of corruption: Iron law of oligarchy: Any established bureaucracy is by definition an oligarchy that acts in concert and reflect interests of other oligarchic groups in society no matter what is the formal charter of the organization.
Democracy even if present is emasculatedSep 04, · "The justices on the Supreme Court do not sit on opposite sides of an aisle," he said Tuesday.
he later wrote in a law review article that presidents' official Of course they are. Well if they do they have certainly not said very much of anything. Which is what has made it easy for people to get carried away.
What I suspect will happen is more froth more bluster, a few more "He says, She says" type plea deals that lack substance, the mid terms to keep things not much changed and Trumps elbows still polishing the desk in.
A year after a Supreme Court decision gutted parts of the Voting Rights Act, Alabama passed a law requiring citizens to have a photo identification in order to vote. Then it closed 31 DMV offices, most in African American communities.
Aug 17, · Judge Brett Kavanaugh’s supporters have spent the last month lavishing him with acclaim. He’s a legal superstar, they say, one of the most qualified Supreme Court nominees in history. Second, the Supreme Court normally considers whether heightened judicial scrutiny might be necessary because either the affected group is a "suspect class" or the .
John M. Leventhal & Liberty Aldrich' On March 8, , the Supreme Court decided Crawford v. Washington, assisted with the research for this article.
2 Crawford v. Washington, U.S. 36 (). 1 Our review reveals that many courts have continued to.