Torah Scrolls The scriptures that we use in services are written on parchment scrolls.
Idea—expression dichotomy[ edit ] Copyright law protects the "expression" of an idea, but copyright does not protect the "idea" itself.
This distinction is called the idea—expression dichotomy. From the Copyright Act of 17 U. In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.
For example, a paper describing a political theory is copyrightable. The paper is the expression of the author's ideas about the political theory. But the theory itself is just an idea, and is not copyrightable. Another author is free to describe the same theory in their own words without infringing on the original author's copyright.
Reasonable people can disagree about where the unprotectable "idea" ends and the protectable "expression" begins. As Judge Learned Hand put it, "Obviously, no principle can be stated as to when an imitator has gone beyond copying the 'idea,' and has borrowed its 'expression. However, compilations of facts are treated differently, and may be copyrightable material.
Copyright protection in compilations is limited to the selection and arrangement of facts, not to the facts themselves. Rural Telephone Service Co.
The Feist case denied copyright protection to a "white pages" phone book a compilation of telephone numbers, listed alphabetically. In making this ruling, the Supreme Court rejected the " sweat of the brow " doctrine. That is, copyright protection requires creativity, and no amount of hard work "sweat of the brow" can transform a non-creative list like an alphabetical listing of phone numbers into copyrightable subject matter.
A mechanical, non-selective collection of facts e. Copyright does not protect useful articles, or objects with some useful functionality. The Copyright Act states: Under these circumstances, Copyright Law only protects the artistic expression of such a work, and only to the extent that the artistic expression can be separated from its utilitarian function.
Supreme Court granted certiorari in the case Star Athletica, L. First, one can identify the decorations as features having pictorial, graphic, or sculptural qualities. And imaginatively removing the surface decorations from the uniforms and applying them in another medium would not replicate the uniform itself.
Indeed, respondents have applied the designs in this case to other media of expression—different types of clothing—without replicating the uniform. The decorations are therefore separable from the uniforms and eligible for copyright protection.4 UrhG, sec. 69a para 4 reads as follows: “The provisions on literary works shall apply to computer programs where not otherwise provided in this Section.”.
The Congress shall have Power [ ] to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. KeyMoves Electronic Edition P R E V E N T I N G ERGONOME C O M P U T E R I N J U R Y THE HAND BOOK The Powerful, Hands-On Guide to Safe Computer Use S T E P H A N I E B R O W N.
T E S T I M O N Y. Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues and people, to whom this Book of the Law of the Lord shall come, that James J.
Strang has the plates of the ancient Book of the Law of the Lord given to Moses, from which he translated this law, and has shown them to us. VIDEO USE IN THE CLASSROOM. QUESTION: What about STREAMING VIDEO OR MUSIC on the schools web site? It is video and audio. Not the whole play (Guys and Dolls) but pieces of the play?
"For God may speak in one way, or in another, yet man does not preceive it." - Job NKJV. The principal aim of the Word In Action Ministry in association with the Ecclesiastical Court of Justice and Law Offices and the Native American Law & Justice Center is to empower God's people towards the acquisition of knowledge, which would enable them to hone and develop the powers of.