An analysis of the needle exchange program in the united states of america

And there's no real "debate," just a series of statements read by each country's representatives. Still, if you like the world of diplomacy, and you enjoy subtext as much as the next person, it's a fascinating exercise.

An analysis of the needle exchange program in the united states of america

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Syringe Exchange Programs United States, Persons who inject drugs should use a new, sterile needle and syringe for each injection 1. Syringe exchange programs SEPs provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users IDUs to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus HIVhepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus HCV.

To characterize SEPs in the United States, this report summarizes the findings from that survey and compares them with previous SEP survey results from the period 2 Inthe SEPs reported exchanging Most of the SEPs reported offering preventive health and clinical services in addition to basic syringe exchange: Providing comprehensive prevention services and referrals to IDUs, such as those offered by many SEPs, can help reduce the spread of bloodborne infections and should increase access to health care and substance abuse treatment, thus serving as an effective public health approach for this population.


Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with the program directors by research staff members to clarify unclear or missing responses received on hard copy surveys. To protect participant confidentiality, many SEPs do not collect client-level data e. The data collection and analysis methods for this report are similar to those used in previous SEP surveys 2 The analyses for this report are limited to frequencies.

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To assess changes in funding over time, budgets from previous years were adjusted to dollars. Data were compiled to show the numbers of programs known to NASEN, numbers of programs completing the surveys, syringes exchanged, and budget information for the surveys conducted from through Table 1.

Rapid growth occurred in the number of SEPs in the United States in the s and early s, followed by more incremental growth through SEPs were categorized as small, medium, large, or very large based on the number of syringes exchanged during Table 2 ; SEPs reported exchanging a total of 29 million syringes in Inmany SEPs operated multiple sites, including fixed sites and mobile units.

An analysis of the needle exchange program in the united states of america

The total number of hours that clients were served by SEPs was summed for all sites operated by each program. In addition to exchanging syringes, SEPs provided various supplies, services, and referrals in ; the percentage of programs providing each type of service was similar for the period Table 3.

Editorial Note The findings in this report indicate that, inthe number of SEPs and the number of syringes exchanged remained similar to recent years, in contrast to a period of rapid growth from the mids through the early s.

Budgets for SEPs increased from throughwith the majority of funds coming from public sources.On paper, Charleston, West Virginia, seemed like a prime candidate for a clean needle exchange. In , West Virginia had the highest drug overdose rate in the nation and the federal government.

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What are needle-exchange programs?

The first federally funded study of needle exchange was an evaluation of the New Haven NEP, which is legally operated by the New Haven Health Department.

Introduction. Launched in , the Six Party Talks are aimed at ending North Korea ’ s nuclear program through negotiations involving China, the United States, North and South Korea, Japan, and. In multivariate analysis among women, secondary exchange was independently associated with distributive syringe sharing, not engaging in receptive sharing, and not exchanging sex for money or drugs.

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Multivariate analysis among men found that having an IDU sexual partner was associated with secondary exchange. Shop from the USA, UK or India. Staying in India and wish to buy from UK to India or USA to India. You have come to right place. PPOBox has established itself in the market to become one amongst the preferred choices of customers for their courier needs.

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