These are explained in more detail below. Phonemic awareness Phonemic awareness teaches children how to recognise and identify phonemes sounds in spoken words.
PDF version Introduction Adequate nutrition in women is one of the most crucial components of a healthy society. Many of the chronic, ongoing problems that women experience in the areas of health, employment, and productivity can be alleviated if they receive adequate nutrition throughout their life cycle.
This paper will present the programs that reduce the prevalence of malnutrition in women at a macro or societal level, or that are effective at a micro or individual level, and those that emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition from a life-course perspective.
Subject Relevance Poor nutrition in women creates a self-perpetuating cycle. Infants born with low birth weight or presenting with retarded growth are at risk for higher-than-average rates of morbidity and mortality during infancy and childhood, and rate lower-than-average in their productivity as adults.
Indeed, nutritional counselling for malnourished women during pregnancy or during inter-pregnancy intervals has not been shown to be an effective method for reducing malnutrition. It is difficult for impoverished, malnourished women to achieve adequate nutrition, especially if they lack access to education that could increase their knowledge of health and nutrition.
At this time, the majority of studies conducted have been pilot projects or program projects, with little research regarding large, society-wide programs for women.
Studies examining the effects of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy have demonstrated positive effects in infant weight, size, and length of gestational age, but few studies have examined the impact of supplementation on maternal health.
Family planning services must therefore be integrated into postpartum services. In addition, support must be provided for breastfeeding—an important contributor to child survival in developing countries.
These programs should be desired and supported by the community, and the community should have a say in the services provided through these programs. Dietary counselling and nutrition information also needs to be provided in a culturally competent manner, as research has demonstrated that grandmothers, eating customs, and locally available foods often determine what foods are consumed by mothers and children.
The authors conclude that folic acid fortification of foods is the best way to reach a majority of women. Fetal programming Fetal programming is the hypothesis that maternal and fetal nutrition can have a profound, lifelong effect on the health of the child as an adult.
Fetal nutritional deprivation is seen as a strong stimulus for development of heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes,38,39 structural defects of the hippocampus,40 defects in immune function,41 and development of depression in later life.
Women should be assessed for diet adequacy during family planning visits e. The most effective approaches for reduction of obesity focus on public-health infrastructure issues such as promotion of physical activity in the environment, availability of high quality foods at fast food venues and vending machines, and provision of low calorie beverages.
The provision of high quality nutrition for women during their life cycle should be seen as an investment in the health of the population and not just a method to increase the birth weights of infants during pregnancy. The fetal programming hypothesis supports the view that fetal under or over nutrition will impact obesity and levels of chronic diseases for generations in the future.
Further support for research is needed to define adequate diets for non-pregnant, pregnant, lactating, and postpartum women.
More research is also required to determine how anthropometrics and laboratory values should be used as indicators of malnutrition or over nutrition.
Political support is necessary to address the disparities in nutrition found in wealthy, developed countries and to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional services.
Finally, as policy is often driven by program cost, nutritional programs must integrate methods of cost analysis to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of providing adequate nutrition for women throughout their life cycles.
Long-term consequences of growth retardation during early childhood. Hernandez M, Argente J, eds. Excerpta Medica, New York; The health of women: Coverage of maternity care: World Health Organization; Perinatal mortality in northern rural Tanzania.
Prospective study of protein-energy supplementation early in life and of growth in the subsequent generation in Guatemala. Nutritional status and linear growth of Indonesian infants in West Java are determined more by prenatal environment than by postnatal factors.
Impact of food supplementation during lactation on infant breast-milk intake and on the proportion of infants exclusively breast-fed. Inter-pregnancy folate and iron status of women in an inner-city population.
Effectiveness and strategies of iron supplementation during pregnancy.
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