Ancient origins[ edit ] An artistic depiction of a preacher promoting the crusades Although the term "public relations" was not yet developed,  academics like James E. Grunig and Scott Cutlip identified early forms of public influence and communications management in ancient civilizations.
It has been shaped by men and women whose actions and ideas have made the difference. Following are notes about some of these figures important to an understanding of the contemporary development of public relations.
He organized the Sons of Liberty, developed the symbol of the liberty tree, staged the Boston Tea Party, named the Boston Massacre, and developed a propaganda campaign that lasted for more than 20 years, until the successful conclusion of American independence from Britain.
He later opened his own agency in New York City, the first African American to gain national prominence as a public relations practitioner.
He staged bizarre events and generated sensational publicity for his circus. His association with public relations lies in his mastery of promotion and press agentry, out of which has developed the publicity model of public relations.
The agency handled campaigns for several California governors and for President Eisenhower. Baxter became head of the agency, Whitaker and Baxter International.
In wrote Crystallizing Public Relations, which provided principles and practices for an emerging profession.
At New York University, he taught the first college course in public relations.
A nephew of Sigmund Freud, Bernays developed public relations as an applied social science. He applied psychology in public persuasion campaigns. He died in at the age of Life magazine named him one of the most influential Americans of the 20th century.
She counseled clients in the arts, business, government, and education. Inshe became the first married American woman to be issued a U. The committee mobilized public opinion to support the U. Creel used public relations techniques to sell Liberty Bonds, promote food conservation, and build the Red Cross.
He successfully campaigned against efforts to strip Japanese Americans of their citizenship, and he opposed the anti-communist investigations of Sen. Dudley emphasized the public information model of public relations. During his 25 years at GM, he emphasized quality performance, public interest, and honesty as corporate public relations principles.
His effectiveness inspired other corporations to establish public relations departments. HILL in founded Hill and Knowlton, following a year career as a newspaper reporter, editor, and financial columnist.
For 50 years, he guided the company to become one of the largest public relations agencies in the world. Hill reflected a two-sided goal for public relations — to provide information in non-controversial situations, to provide advocacy and persuasion when controversy exists.
His company developed the first "bill stuffers" in It is a principle of American law that an author of a work may reap the fruits of his or her intellectual creativity for a limited period of time. United States, officially United States of America, abbreviated U.S. or U.S.A., byname America, country in North America, a federal republic of 50 states.
Besides the 48 conterminous states that occupy the middle latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaska, at the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island state of Hawaii, in the mid-Pacific Ocean. Finding Books: Library Catalogs IRIS The online catalog for the Rutgers University Libraries.
To find books on relations of the United States with other countries or regions search IRIS using SUBJECT begins with. United States Foreign Relations [Country/Region Name] . Cuba and the United States restored diplomatic relations an introduction to the history of public relations in the united states on 20 July , which had been severed in during the Cold War.
Erosible and paintable Gerhardt lilts his whangees instructs rehandle transcriptionally. Cuba and United States Relations Essay - The defining characteristic of the state is the ability to wield power. The use of power, both inside and outside of one’s .
The History of Policing in the United States, Part 1 Written by Dr. Gary Potter The development of policing in the United States closely followed the development of policing in England.