Keep the video in mind as you read the following: The underlying perspectives and principles that helped make it possible for human beings to commit the horrible wrongdoing evil seen in the video were taught with state sponsored propaganda and force to a generation of German youth.
There Plato offers the first sustained discussion of the nature of justice dikaiosune and its relation to happiness, as a departure from three alternatives receiving varying degrees of attention. First, there is a traditionalist conception of justice speaking the truth and paying your debts.
These last two challenges give rise to the central question of the book: Would we really be better off being unjust if we could get away with it?
Similarly, the psyche of the individual has three parts: Further, Plato argues, justice is a master virtue in a sense, because in both the city and the psyche, if each part is doing its own job, both city and psyche will also have wisdom, courage, and moderation or self-discipline.
This conception of justice sustains the contrast with the conventionalist view advocated by the Sophists.
On the other hand, at least initially it leaves it an open question whether the just individual refrains from such socially proscribed actions as lying, killing, and stealing.
Aristotle does not see the virtue of justice in quite the comprehensive sense Plato does; he treats it as a virtue of character in the entirety of one of the ten books of the Nicomachean Ethics, also common to the Eudemian Ethicsand as a virtue of constitutions and political arrangements in Politics.
The question naturally arises as to the relation between these forms of justice. Aristotle seems to think they are closely related, without being synonymous applications of the same concept.
As the latter is a conception of political justice, we will focus here on the former. It is not clear, however, exactly how Aristotle understands this arrangement, or the nature of the vices of excess and defect which this particular justice is to counteract.
These issues remain open in part because Aristotle seems most interested in establishing a conception of the formal structure of justice, which seems to reflect a conception of desert.
He distinguishes within particular justice between justice in distribution and justice in rectification. The former, he claims, adheres to a kind of proportionality, in which what each deserves is proportional to the relationship between the contributions. These structural devices are elegant and attractive, but they leave open a number of questions.
First, as indicated, to what are we to suppose they apply? Second, in what way do they figure into the nature of the person who is just in the particular sense?
That is, how are they related to justice as a virtue? Does a model of particular justice as a virtue fit the general model of virtue as a mean, and if so, what sort of mean is it?
Aristotle seems torn between a conception of justice as a virtue in his distinctive understanding of what a virtue is — with a requirement that one have all the virtues to have any Nicomachean EthicsVI.
All this is to leave aside questions of the relation between this particular sense of justice and political justice, and the role of the virtue of justice in the individual as it contributes to justice in the polis.
For Epicurus this consisted in ataraxia — tranquility, or freedom from disturbance. Given that the good life is the life without disturbance, justice plays a key instrumental role. One might, Epicurus thinks, withdraw entirely from human society to avoid disturbance, but the alternative is to live socially under terms which secure the avoidance of disturbance.
This is the structure of the ideal Epicurean community, in which each forbears aggression ArmstrongThrasher Justice is a matter of keeping agreements generally, and in particular the agreement not to harm or transgress social norms.
In this way Epicurus offers a conception of the virtue of justice that harmonizes both its personal and its political dimensions. The personal virtue consists in the motivation to abide by a contract not to aggress or harm others.Aristotle and Aquinas Among political theorists, the debate over the rule of law has been quite intense.
From the earliest days of political philosophy through to the enlightenment, there have been varying views on what the rule of law should be. While Aristotle and Plato both take a plunge into the unknowns of a political state, Aristotle demonstrates a state for individuals, to rule as equals, contrary to Plato’s strict utopian structure and group over individual hierarchy view of the ideal state.
Western Theories of Justice. for Aristotle, justice is a rational mean between bad extremes. Natural justice must always take precedence over the contingent agreements of our human conventions. Human law must never contravene natural law, which is reason’s way of understanding God’s eternal law.
Aristotle (b. – d. BCE), was a Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory.
1. Defining the Concept ‘Equality’ is a contested concept: “People who praise it or disparage it disagree about what they are praising or disparaging” (Dworkin , p. 2). While Aristotle and Plato both take a plunge into the unknowns of a political state, Aristotle demonstrates a state for individuals, to rule as equals, contrary to Plato’s strict utopian structure and group over individual hierarchy view of the ideal state. Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? [Michael J. Sandel] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For Michael Sandel, justice is not a spectator sport, The Nation 's reviewer of Justice remarked. In his acclaimed book―based on his legendary Harvard course―Sandel offers a rare education in thinking through the complicated issues and controversies we face in public life today.
Aristotle’s Life. Born in B.C.E. in the Macedonian region of northeastern Greece in the small city of Stagira (whence the moniker ‘the Stagirite’), Aristotle was sent to Athens at about the age of seventeen to study in Plato’s Academy, then a pre-eminent place of learning in the Greek world.
A Socratic perspective on the relationship between ignorance, human evil, and the examined life.