History[ edit ] Parker Pillsbury and other abolitionist men held feminist views and openly identified as feminist, using their influence to promote the rights of women and slaves respectively.
Overview[ edit ] Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, and expected of boys and men.
The concept of masculinity varies historically and culturally; although the dandy was seen as a 19th-century ideal of masculinity, he is considered effeminate by modern standards. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior.
Those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynousand feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification.
Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, and produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history.
Connell wrote that these initial works were marked by a "high level of generality" in "broad surveys of cultural norms".
The scholarship was aware of contemporary societal changes aiming to understand and evolve or liberate the male role in response to feminism. Throughout history, men have met exacting cultural standards.
Legends of ancient heroes include the Epic of Gilgameshthe Iliad and the Odyssey. The stories demonstrate qualities in the hero which inspire respectsuch as wisdom and courage: The Anglo-Saxons Hengest and Horsa [ citation needed ] and Beowulf are examples of medieval masculine ideals.
According to David Rosen, the traditional view of scholars such as J. Tolkien that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the similarities between Beowulf and the monster Grendel. The masculinity exemplified by Beowulf "cut[s] men off from women, other men, passion and the household".
Scottish philosopher Thomas Carlyle wrote in In an important sense there is only one complete unblushing male in America: Regardless of age or nationality, men more frequently rank good health, a harmonious family life and a good relationship with their spouse or partner as important to their quality of life.
In sociologythis labeling is known as gender assumptions and is part of socialization to meet the mores of a society. Non-standard behavior may be considered indicative of homosexualitydespite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted as distinct concepts.
Although social conditioning is believed to play a role, psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung believed that aspects of "feminine" and "masculine" identity are subconsciously present in all human males.
All human cultures seem to encourage gender roles in literature, costume and song; examples may include the epics of Homerthe Hengist and Horsa tales and the normative commentaries of Confucius. Nature versus nurture[ edit ] Main article: Nature versus nurture The sources of gender identity are debated.
Some believe that masculinity is linked to the male body; in this view, masculinity is associated with male genitalia.
Proponents of this view argue that women can become men hormonally and physically: Although the military has a vested interest in constructing and promoting a specific form of masculinity, it does not create it.
The social construction of gender also conceptualizes gender as a continuum. Theorists suggest one is not simply masculine or feminine, but instead may display components of both masculinity and femininity to different degrees and in particular contexts.
Masculine performance varies over the life course, but also from one context to another. For instance, the sports world may elicit more traditionally normative masculinities in participants than would other settings.
Masculinities vary by social class as well.
Studies suggest working class constructions of masculinity to be more normative than are those from middle class men and boys.The foundation for trauma theory has been firmly established across multiple disciplines and fields ranging from American studies, history, and psychoanalysis to cultural studies, sociology, and anthropology among others, with a particular upsurge in scholarship during the s.
That underpinning. Free Essay: Hegemonic masculinity practices are not only dominate towards women - domination practices also involve ‘other’ masculinities. Hegemonic. "Bob Connell is the most fertile, astute and influential analyst of the myriad and messy meanings of masculinities on the planet.
"The Men and the Boys boldly extends the scope, depth and power of the foundational work he laid in Masculinities to address the most urgent and difficult questions about global gender and injustice of our time. Public and international discourse on the debate for gender equality focuses on the oppression of women, as it rightly should.
However, the influence that traditional male stereotypes have on the perpetuation of gender inequality, at a transnational scale, also needs to be addressed. Jun 17, · Gender and Violence through a Hegemonic Masculinity Lens: A Reflection from South Africa Critical Men’s Studies fundamentally argues that there is no essence of masculinity and femininity which makes men and women behave in very different ways, rather it assumes that masculinities and femininities are constructed in .
Essay on Hegemonic Masculinity in American Society - Masculinity is described as possession of attributes considered typical of a man. Hegemonic masculinity is a form of masculine character with cultural idealism and emphasis that connects masculinity to competitiveness, toughness, and women subordination.