Organizers wanted to build the greater Canton area up with some kind of activity that would promote the agricultural, historical and cultural history of the area while generating economic development. Through much discussion, a festival was conceived that tied into the agricultural background of the area and promoted the many talented local crafters. The festival would also create a venue for local civic and non-profit organizations to do fund-raising.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message The earliest computers were mainframes that lacked any form of operating system.
Each user had sole use of the machine for a scheduled period of time and would arrive at the computer with History and background of apple and data, often on punched paper cards and magnetic or paper tape.
The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a control panel using dials, toggle switches and panel lights.
Symbolic languages, assemblers ,[ citation needed ] and compilers were developed for programmers to translate symbolic program-code into machine code that previously would have been hand-encoded. Later machines came with libraries of support code on punched cards or magnetic tape, which would be linked to the user's program to assist in operations such as input and output.
This was the genesis of the modern-day operating system; however, machines still ran a single job at a time.
At Cambridge University in England the job queue was at one time a washing line from which tapes were hung with different colored clothes-pegs to indicate job-priority. Accounting for and paying for machine usage moved on from checking the wall clock to automatic logging by the computer.
Run queues evolved from a literal queue of people at the door, to a heap of media on a jobs-waiting table, or batches of punch-cards stacked one on top of the other in the reader, until the machine itself was able to select and sequence which magnetic tape drives processed which tapes.
Where program developers had originally had access to run their own jobs on the machine, they were supplanted by dedicated machine operators who looked after the machine and were less and less concerned with implementing tasks manually.
When commercially available computer centers were faced with the implications of data lost through tampering or operational errors, equipment vendors were put under pressure to enhance the runtime libraries to prevent misuse of system resources.
Automated monitoring was needed not just for CPU usage but for counting pages printed, cards punched, cards read, disk storage used and for signaling when operator intervention was required by jobs such as changing magnetic tapes and paper forms. Security features were added to operating systems to record audit trails of which programs were accessing which files and to prevent access to a production payroll file by an engineering program, for example.
All these features were building up towards the repertoire of a fully capable operating system. Eventually the runtime libraries became an amalgamated program that was started before the first customer job and could read in the customer job, control its execution, record its usage, reassign hardware resources after the job ended, and immediately go on to process the next job.
These resident background programs, capable of managing multistep processes, were often called monitors or monitor-programs before the term "operating system" established itself.
An underlying program offering basic hardware-management, software-scheduling and resource-monitoring may seem a remote ancestor to the user-oriented OSes of the personal computing era.
But there has been a shift in the meaning of OS. Just as early automobiles lacked speedometers, radios, and air-conditioners which later became standard, more and more optional software features became standard features in every OS package, although some applications such as database management systems and spreadsheets remain optional and separately priced.
This has led to the perception of an OS as a complete user-system with an integrated graphical user interfaceutilities, some applications such as text editors and file managersand configuration tools. The true descendant of the early operating systems is what is now called the " kernel ".
In technical and development circles the old restricted sense of an OS persists because of the continued active development of embedded operating systems for all kinds of devices with a data-processing component, from hand-held gadgets up to industrial robots and real-time control-systems, which do not run user applications at the front-end.
An embedded OS in a device today is not so far removed as one might think from its ancestor of the s. The broader categories of systems and application software are discussed in the computer software article.
Every operating system, even from the same vendor, could have radically different models of commands, operating procedures, and such facilities as debugging aids. Typically, each time the manufacturer brought out a new machine, there would be a new operating system, and most applications would have to be manually adjusted, recompiled, and retested.
Systems on IBM hardware[ edit ] Main article: This was available in three system generation options: PCP for early users and for those without the resources for multiprogramming. MVT for large systems. This was similar in most ways to PCP and MFT most programs could be ported among the three without being re-compiledbut has more sophisticated memory management and a time-sharing facility, TSO.
Overcompensating for their perceived importance of developing a timeshare system, they set hundreds of developers to work on the project. They ended up with a bloated, buggy project that took as long to boot as it did to crash, and ended the project without releasing it.
In cooperation with the University of Minnesotathe Kronos and later the NOS operating systems were developed during the s, which supported simultaneous batch and timesharing use. Like many commercial timesharing systems, its interface was an extension of the DTSS time sharing system, one of the pioneering efforts in timesharing and programming languages.Chronological and Background Charts of Church History (ZondervanCharts) [Robert C.
Walton] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The rich tapestry of nearly 2, years of church history overflows with persons, places, events, dates.
I know that my posts here in the past few years are often just saying “Hey, I was at KansasFest” and not much else, but, hey, what can I say, there’s not much new in Apple II history these days. It's official: Apple has become the first $1 trillion company in history.
The milestone is even more significant when you consider that Apple almost didn't even .
Mac History The History of Apple – Facts, Tales and Stories about Apple, Mac, iPod, iPhone, iPad – collected and written by Christoph Dernbach. The Computer Museum in Boston closes and moves some of the exhibits into Boston’s Museum of Science. The remainder of the historical collection of world-class artifacts travels to The Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, which incorporates as .
Apple Computer, Inc. designs, manufactures, and markets personal computers, software, networking solutions, and peripherals, including a line of portable digital music players.