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Zipes contends that the magic of Disney lies in his ability to transfix audiences and divert their Utopian dream through false promises propagated through animated fairy tales. Storytellers initially shared fairy tales orally, which perpetuated a sense of community and created a telos, or a sense of mission.
In order to be accepted into the cultivated literary circles of the French bourgeoisie of the late seventeenth century, fairy tales had to be transformed. Despite the literary fairy tales institutionalization, the oral tradition continued to feed writers with material and was now influenced by the literary tradition, such as in the case of the Bibliotheque Bleue, which contained numerous abbreviated and truncated versions of the literary tales.
The literary tales were meant to be read in private; however, the book form enabled privatization and thus violated the communal aspects of the folk tale, much as the printing of the tales had already accomplished. The privatization of fairy tales furthered notions of elitism and separation.
According to Zipes, the French fairy tales heightened the aspect of the chosen aristocratic elite: They were part of the class struggles in the discourses of that period. By institutionalizing the fairy tale, writers and publishers disregarded the forms and concerns of the underprivileged and illiterate, and established new standards of taste, production, and reception through the discourse of jack zipes breaking the disney spell essay writer fairy tale.
The tales came to represent the values of a particular writer; therefore, if the writer respected the canonical ideology of their predecessors e. In contrast, other writers would write tales the parodied or undermined the classical literary tradition, and produce original, subversive tales that were indicative of the institution itself These original and subversive tales have sustained the dynamic quality of the dialectical appropriation, for there has generally been a fear that the written word will fix a structure image, plot, etc.
Zipes argues that by the end of the nineteenth century, the literary fairy tale had the following crucial functions as institution in middle-class society: It introduced notions of elitism and separatism through a select canon of tales geared to children who knew how to read.
Though it was also told, the fact that the fairy tale was printed and in a book with pictures gave it more legitimacy and enduring value than an oral tale that disappeared soon after it was told.
Although the plots varied and the themes and characters were altered, the classical fairy tale for children and adults reinforced the patriarchal symbolic order based on rigid notions of sexuality and gender.
In printed form the fairy tale was property and could be taken by its owner and read by its owner at his or her leisure for escape, consolation, or inspiration. Along with its closure and reinforcement of patriarchy, the fairy tale also served to encourage notions of rags to riches, pulling yourself up by your bootstraps, dreaming, miracles, etc.
Tension between the literary and oral traditions existed. The oral threatened the more conventional and classical tales because they questioned, dislodged, and deconstructed the written tales. Moreover, within the literary tradition itself, many questioned the standardized model of what a fairy tale should be.
It was through script by the end of the nineteenth century that there was a full-scale debate about what oral folk tales and literary fairy tales were and what their respective functions should be.
By this time, the fairy tale had expanded as a high art form operas, ballets, dramas and low art form folk plays, vaudevilles, and parodies as well as a form developed classically and experimentally for children and adults. The oral tales continued to be disseminated through communal gatherings of different kinds, but they were also broadcast by radio and gathered in books by folklorists.
Most important in the late nineteenth century was the rise of folklore as an institution and of various schools of literary criticism that dealt with fairy tales and folk tales. Though many fairy-tale books and collections were illustrated some lavishly in the nineteenth century, the images were very much in conformity with the text.
The illustrators were frequently anonymous and did not seem to count. Though the illustrations often enriched and deepened a tale, they were generally subservient to the text.
Images now imposed themselves on the text and formed their own visual meaning in violation of print and the print culture. It is here, Zipes contends, where Walt Disney and other animators arrived to appropriate our traditional understanding of fairy tales.
By the turn of the twentieth century, many animators had redefined fairy tales through their interpretations of them through imagery. Printed animations, which had become widespread in Europe and America during the latter part of the nineteenth century, heralded in the age of comic books, which assisted in redefining our understanding of traditional interpretations of fairy tales.
Citing Crafton, Zipes points out those early animators before Disney made themselves a part of their animations, often appearing as characters in their animations. The celebration of the phallus in the film was indicative of the nature of production in animation studios of the time.
Such technologies prepared the way for progressive innovation that expanded the mindset of audiences and brought greater awareness and understanding to social conditions and culture; however, such innovations also ushered in the regressive uses of mechanical reproduction that generated the cult of the personality and commodification of film narratives.
It did not matter what story was projected just as long as the images astounded the audience, captured its imagination for a short period, and left the people laughing or staring in wonderment.
The purpose of the early animated films was to make audiences awestruck and to celebrate the magical talents of the animator as demigod. By doing so, animators appropriated literary and oral fairy tales to redefine the genre and conform it to the vision of Disney, who truly revolutionized the fairy tale as institution through the cinema.
While his telling may be a self-figuration of the story, it is also an attack on the literary tradition of the fairy tale. Zipes contends that by simplifying this oedipal complex semiotically through animation and satirizing it in order to create common appeal, Disney also touches on other themes: Democracy—the film is very American in its attitude toward royalty.
The monarchy is debunked, and a commoner causes a kind of revolution.Jack Zipes, in his essay "Breaking the Disney Spell", directly addresses the issue of what happens when a story is taken from its original oral form and written down Zipes discusses in depth what Walt Disney has done to fairy tales and the consequences of Disney's actions.
SurLaLune frequently receives inquiries about Disney and fairy tales. Here is a Zipes, Jack. Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales, Zipes, Jack. “Breaking the Disney Spell.” Fairy Tale as Myth: Myth as Fairy Tale. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Ielts exam essay writing real estate improving essay writing skill zone (an essay writer kanyashree prakalpa) Disney spell breaking essays the Jack zipes.
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Breaking the Disney Spell Why Disney just isn't for me anymore According to Jack Zipes in his article, To draw one particular example, which fantasy writer have you not heard of, that hasn't borrowed his or her inspiration from J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings?
Disney is no exception. He got his inspiration from fairy tales, such. This item: Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales by Jack Zipes Paperback $ Only 2 left in stock (more on /5(8).
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