A brief biography of historian Leopold von Ranke The son of an attorney, and a scion of an old Lutheran theological family, Leopold von Ranke was born in Wiehe, Thuringia, in December and later became a famous German historian and educator.
The essay In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.
Modern origins Before the word itself was coined in the 16th century by Montaigne and Bacon, what came to be called an essay was called a treatiseand its attempt to treat a serious theme with consistency deprived it of the seductive charm relished in the later examples of that form of literature.
Not until the Renaissance, with its increasing assertion of the self, was the flexible and Leopold von ranke essay nonchalant and versatile form of the essay perfected by Montaigne. Montaignewho established the term essay, left his mark on almost every essayist who came after him in continental Europe, and perhaps even more in English-speaking countries.
Emerson made him one of his six Representative Men along with others of the stature of Plato, Shakespeare, and Goethe. Eliot declared him to be the most important writer to study for an insight into the literature of France. With Montaigne, the essay achieved for the first time what it can achieve better than any other form of writing, except perhaps the epistolary one: It gave the writer a way of reaching the secret springs of his behaviour, of seizing the man and the author at once in his contradictions, in his profound disunity, and in his mobility.
Now he set out to accept himself whole, with his body and his physical and behavioural peculiarities, and thereby repudiate medieval asceticism.
He would portray his foibles and unworthiness, hoping to rise above his own mediocrity, or, at the other extreme, he would exalt himself in the hope that he might become the man he depicted. Montaigne in his essays pursued an ethical purpose, but with no pompousness or rhetoric.
He offered an ideal that was adopted by his successors for centuries: But, unlike medieval Christian writers, he would not sacrifice to others the most dearly cherished part of himself.
To others he would lend himself, but his personality and his freedom were his own, and his primary duty was to become a wiser human being. No essayist after Montaigne touched on so many varied aspects of life with such an informal, felicitous, and brilliant style.
The influence of the essay and of genres allied to it, such as maxims, portraits, and sketches, proved second to none in molding the behaviour of the cultured classes, first in Italy, then in France, and, through French influence, in most of Europe in the 17th century.
With the advent of a keener political awareness with the age of Enlightenment, in the 18th century, the essay became all-important as the vehicle for a criticism of society and of religion.
Because of its flexibility, its brevityand its potential both for ambiguity and for allusions to current events and conditions, it was an ideal tool for philosophical reformers. The Federalist Papers in America and the tracts of the French Revolutionaries, are among the countless examples of attempts during this period to improve the condition of man through the essay.
The advantage of this form of writing was that it was not required to conform to any unity of tone or to similar strictures assigned to other genres since it was for a long time not even considered a genre.
After ponderous apologies for traditional faith failed to repulse the onslaught of deism and atheism, traditionalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Burke and Coleridge, abandoned unwieldy dogmatic demonstrations in favour of the short, provocative essay. In the defense of the past, it served as the most potent means of educating the masses.
French Catholics, German pietists, and a number of individual English and American authors confided to the essay their dismay at what they saw as modern vulgarity and a breakdown of the coherence of the Western tradition. Creative writers resorted to it to admonish their compatriots when they seemed too selfishly unconcerned by the tragedies of the world.
Lewis MumfordAllen Tateand other literary and social critics became crusaders for moral and spiritual reform; others seized upon the essay for scathingly ironical and destructive criticism of their culture:64 ESSAY REVIEW: PSYCHOLOGY AS A HUMANISM JHBS—WILEY LEFT BATCH short standard long Top of RH Base of RH Top of text ment (rather he sees it as another response, along with that of Hobbes, to scholastic natural Base of text philosophy), nor unduly modernizes it (e.g., he warns against simply identifying the Cartesian.
home table of content united architects – essays table of content all sites Ranke, Leopold von German, – Prussian historian Leopold von Ranke is generally regarded as the founder of modern historiography.
While the 20th century has produced a substantial number of German historians who are also interesting as essayists, there was a .
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This long-awaited, indispensable volume contains more than poems drawn from dozens of languages and cultures, and spans a period of more than years from ancient Sumer and Egypt to the late twentieth century. Jakob Burckhardt ~ Historian The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy Jakob Burckhardt, later famous as a Renaissance Cultural historian, was born in Basel, where his father was a minister in the Reformed church, in May Leopold von Ranke lays down a series of critiques against the philosophy of history.
He outlines several flaws in the methodology that he believes prevent it from accurately recreating the historical development of ideas, events, etc.