The mind is uselessif the eyes are blind. Are you missing anything regarding the words you use on a regular basis?
University World News or Higher Education Web Publishing does not necessarily endorse, support, sanction, encourage, verify or agree with any comments, opinions or statements or other content provided by readers. Scholars from universities in and outside Africa gathered in the Nigerian city of Calabar recently Slave religion research paper examine the role of Arab merchants in the trans-Saharan slave trade, which lasted for 17 centuries.
Papers presented agreed that both slave trades were unprecedented in history and responsible for the deportation of millions of Africans to various parts of the world.
The participants also considered both slave trades to be crimes against humanity as defined by United Nations resolutions flowing from the Durban conference on racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia. Nigerian representatives in UNESCO have for decades urged member countries to examine the Atlantic and trans-Saharan slave trades as a key reason for under-development in Africa.
As a scholar I felt that we should also do justice to the other leg of slave routes.
Common strands Despite the vast and complex nature of the various papers presented by scholars, there were common strands among them. Slavery and slave trading are among the oldest economic modes of production in history. Domestic slavery existed in Africa before the advent of externally motivated slave trades by Arabs and Europeans.
The lifespan of slavery varied from one continent to the other. Some African kings became active suppliers of Africans as slaves to international European and Arab slave merchants.
One of the clauses of the treaty was the compulsory annual supply by the Sudanese king of hundreds of African slaves to the Muslim king of Egypt. The European trans-Atlantic slave trade took off 10 centuries later, in Some of the seminar participants affirmed that while the trans-Atlantic slave trade lasted for four centuriesthe trans-Saharan slave trade continued for 17 centuries There were similarities between the slave trades.
And some European scholars supported the trans-Atlantic slave trade by making copious references to the book of Genesis in the Bible. Consequently, slavery was not the product of racism. However, racism was one consequence of slavery.
The participants agreed that both slave routes were responsible for the migration of millions of Africans to other parts of the world.
The statistics of deported Africans remain highly controversial among scholars. Silences Two issues were not given prominence by the participants: The perpetuation of African slaves was fundamentally assured by women slaves who were indiscriminately coupled to men without their consent.
Castration of numbers of male slaves by Arab merchants was a prominent feature of the trans-Saharan slave trade. Castrated male slaves were purchased by rich Arab kings and princes and employed as security agents to protect harems where their wives and concubines were caged.
Slavery creates permanent violent conflicts between the slave and the master. Salah Trebelsi, a historian at the University of Lyon in France, gave a graphic description of revolts by African slaves in Iraq between the seventh and the ninth centuries.
A common feature across papers was the perpetuation and preservation of modified African cultures, religions, medicine and music by descendants of African slaves in Arab and Muslin countries.
A major resolution adopted by conference participants was the need to create a network of researchers on the slave trade and slavery in the Arab and Islamic worlds.Religious Beliefs in Africa - comparative info about the diverse religious systems in the living African world.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in Slave Species of the Gods: The Secret History of the Anunnaki and Their Mission on Earth [Michael Tellinger] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Our origins as a slave species and the Anunnaki legacy in our DNA • Reveals compelling new archaeological and genetic evidence for the engineered origins of the human species. ANCIENT MYSTERIES “Clearly written, Slave Species of the Gods is a fast and gripping read that covers everything from biology, science, and history to religion, mythological gods, and ancient astronauts.
Don’t miss this one.” --Jim Marrs, author of Rule by Secrecy, Alien Agenda, and Crossfire Scholars have long believed that the first civilization on Earth emerged in Sumer some 6, Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.
Our clients know us for our reliability, speed to market, and long-standing razor sharp focus on customer service. Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging. The Purdue Online Writing Lab Welcome to the Purdue OWL. We offer free resources including Writing and Teaching Writing, Research, Grammar and Mechanics, Style Guides, ESL (English as a Second Language), and Job Search and Professional Writing.