Steam engines[ edit ] In steam engine terminology the exhaust is steam that is now so low in pressure that it can no longer do useful work. Main motor vehicle emissions[ edit ] Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in Mono- nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 NOx whether produced this way or naturally by lightning react with ammoniamoisture, and other compounds to form nitric acid vapor and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply into sensitive lung tissue and damage it, causing premature death in extreme cases. Inhalation of NO species increases the risk of lung cancer  and colorectal cancer.
Melosi Auto Emissions and Air Pollution The Santa Barbara oil spill was a dramatic reminder of the risks inherent in the search for energy resources.
Emissions from the internal combustion engine, however, have proved to be the most significant environmental consequence of oil production.
Street cleaners who sang the praises of the motor car for delivering them from tons of horse manure could not appreciate that the environmental panacea of one generation proved to be the bane of another. The technical limits of the internal combustion engine and the scale of automobile use produced devastating forms of pollution.
Some pollution crises in the postwar years were harbingers of things to come.
Essay on the Impact of Automobile Pollution: Automobile pollutants have multiple effects on various environmental variables (Table ). Among them the effect of auto-emission on plants and human health is most predominant. The Automobile and the Environment in American History. by Martin V. Melosi. Auto Emissions and Air Pollution. The Santa Barbara oil spill was a dramatic reminder of the risks inherent in the search for energy resources. This resulted in dramatic reductions in ambient lead levels and alleviated many serious environmental and human health concerns associated with lead pollution. The next major milestone in vehicle emission control technology came in
Ina temperature inversion kept a dense smoke cloud of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter close to the ground for six days in the steel mill town of Donora, Pennsylvania. On the fifth day, October 30, seventeen people died, followed by two more deaths twenty-four hours later.
Almost 43 percent of the townspeople became ill, with more than 10 percent 1, "severely affected. Those dangers were reconfirmed by the "killer smog" that hit London in 4, deaths and the serious smog attack in New York City in deaths. Congress enacted the National Air Pollution Control Act in to generate research on air pollution, but how automobile emissions fit into the story took several years to evaluate and even longer to address.
A relatively new source of air contamination, automobile emissions posed different problems than manufacturing discharges such as coal smoke. Before the Industrial Revolution, levels of toxic chemicals in the air were relatively low, but increased fossil-fuel production and use dramatically decreased air quality.
The addition of many thousands of cars on the road in the years after World War II intensified the spread of air pollution, added more and newer sources of pollutants, and most immediately threatened many major cities.
In the s, citizens of the car-dominated Los Angeles basin complained about a white or sometimes yellow-brown haze that made their eyes tear. They referred to this irritation as "smog. The more recent version of smog, primarily from automobile emissions, is composed of a complex of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, waste heat, and aerosols liquid droplets, solid particles, and other various mixtures of liquids and solids suspended in air.
Tropospheric ozone, located a few feet above ground, is another significant component of smog. In the late s, at least 60 million people in North America regularly breathed air that failed to achieve federal air quality standards established ten years earlier; during the summer heat wave inthe number rose to million.
Individually or together, the various components pose a health hazard to humans. Auto emissions can cause headaches, contribute to lung cancer, emphysema, and various other respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and have been linked to low birth weight in infants.
They also modify weather conditions, damage vegetation, and eat away at rubber, textiles, dyes, and other materials. The use of tetraethyl lead as a gasoline additive in introduced yet another toxic substance to automobile emissions that threatened human health.Air pollution regulations and emission controls also have an effect.
The National Air Pollutant Emission Trends report summarizes long-term trends in emissions of air pollutants and gives in-depth analysis of emissions for the current year. Transportation produces almost thirty percent of all U.S.
global warming emissions—but cleaner vehicles can help. John is one of the nation's first drivers to use a zero-emission, battery electric school bus.
Read more about John's work > Infographic. The Automobile and the Environment in American History. by Martin V.
Melosi. Auto Emissions and Air Pollution. The Santa Barbara oil spill was a dramatic reminder of the risks inherent in the search for energy resources.
Read this article to learn about the sources, effects and control of automobile pollution! Automobiles are a necessary evil, while they have made living easy and convenient, they have also made human life more complicated and vulnerable to both toxic emissions and an increased risk of accidents.
There are several ways that car and truck owners can reduce the effects of car pollutants on the environment. Old and poorly maintained vehicles cause most pollution from cars, but electric, hybrid and other clean, fuel-efficient cars have a reduced impact.
Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Human Health available means of reducing transportation-related air pollution and climate change emissions. and our environment from the growing costs and risks of our oil use —but not without you. Your generous support helps develop science-based solutions for a healthy, safe, and sustainable future.