The Global Cities Institute convenes collaborative, cross-disciplinary research that builds on the GCIF metrics and integrates urban governance with design, technology and economics.
Primate city The dominant conurbation s of a country can benefit to a greater extent from the same things cities offer, making them magnets for not just the non-urban population, but also urban and suburban population from other cities. Dominant conurbations are quite often primate citiesbut do not have to be.
For instance Greater Manila is rather a conurbation than a city: A conurbation's dominance can be measured by output, wealth, and especially population, each expressed as a percentage of an entire country.
Crowded people on Siam BTS Station on the rush hour in BangkokThailand As cities develop, effects can include a dramatic increase and change in costs, often pricing the local working class out of the market, including such functionaries as employees of the local municipalities.
For example, Eric Hobsbawm's book The age of revolution: The almost universal European division into a 'good' west end and a 'poor' east end of large cities developed in this period. The drive for rapid urban growth and often efficiency can lead to less equitable urban development.
Think tanks such as the Overseas Development Institute have proposed policies that encourage labor-intensive growth as a means of absorbing the influx of low-skilled and unskilled labor.
In many cases, the rural-urban low skilled or unskilled migrant workers, attracted by economic opportunities in urban areas, cannot find a job and afford housing in cities and have to dwell in slums.
Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but there are positives in the reduction of expenses in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation.
Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity and diversity. In many developing countries where economies are growing, the growth is often erratic and based on a small number of industries. For young people in these countries barriers exist such as, lack of access to financial services and business advisory services, difficulty in obtaining credit to start a business, and lack of entrepreneurial skills, in order for them to access opportunities in these industries.
Investment in human capital so that young people have access to quality education and infrastructure to enable access to educational facilities is imperative to overcoming economic barriers. An urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas produce and retain heat.
Much of the solar energy that reaches rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where there is less vegetation and exposed soil, most of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt; leading to higher surface temperatures. Vehicles, factories and industrial and domestic heating and cooling units release even more heat.
First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate, and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses caused by population growth. Secondly, emigration from rural areas reduces destructive subsistence farming techniques, such as improperly implemented slash and burn agriculture.
The mix of changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems and health care, and potentially cause a humanitarian and environmental disaster. When rain occurs in these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2 and other green house gases in the air onto the ground below.
Then, those chemicals are washed directly into rivers, streams and oceans, causing a decline in water quality and damaging marine ecosystems. Overgrowth of algal blooms causes a decrease in overall water quality and disrupts the natural balance of aquatic ecosystems.
Furthermore, as algal blooms die, CO2 is produced, causing a more acidic environment, a process known as acidifacation.
In fact, it is reported that the ocean absorbs a quarter of the CO2 produced by humans. This has been useful to the environment by decreasing the harmful effects of greenhouse gases, but also further perpetuates acidification. Regardless, some species have been able to instead adapt or thrive in a more acidic environment  Food Waste[ edit ] Rapid growth of communities create new challenges in the developed world and one such challenge is an increase in food waste  also known as urban food waste.
The increase of food waste can raise environmental concerns such as increase production of methane gases and attraction of disease vectors. Accumulation of food waste causes increased fermentation, which increases the risk of rodent and bug migration. An increase in migration of disease vectors creates greater potential of disease spreading to humans.
Depending on the various factors, such as level of urbanization, both increases or decreases in "species richness" can be seen. This means that urbanization may be detrimental to one species but also help facilitate the growth of others.
In instances of housing and building devevlopment, many times vegetation is completely removed immediately in order to make it easier and less expensive for construction to occur, thereby obliterating any native species in that area. Other times, such as with birds, urbanization may allow for an increase in richness when organisms are able to adapt to the new environment.
This can be seen in species that may find food while scavenging developed areas or vegetation that has been added after urbanization has occurred i.The edition of the Global Risks report completes a decade of highlighting the most significant long-term risks worldwide, drawing on the perspectives of experts and global decision-makers.
The opening of the World Expo heralds Shanghai’s coming of age, the rising economic might of China, and the financial power of Asia’s legendary metropolis. But that’s only part of the story. The World Expo also reflects the rise of Shanghai as a global city and the intensity of competition.
nearly 60 percent of the global population will - regardbouddhiste.com The city is the most powerful tool humanity has for social and economic development. High rates of urbanization are associated with many positive outcomes including higher income and lower infant.
Research that builds on the Global City Indicators Facility metrics and bridges the fields of urban governance, design, technology and economics.
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations).